An alternative strategy, biological control using exotic parasitoids, is the focus of research at nparl. Brawl cl plus is a hard red winter wheat developed by the colorado agricultural experiment station released in 2011. Genomeresolved insights into a novel spiroplasma symbiont of the wheat stem sawfly cephus cinctus. Integrated pest management of wheat stem sawfly in north. John thompson rln stained red in a wheat root, as seen under the microscope.
The sawfly will not damage corn or broadleaf crops. Entomologist allard cosse prepares a sawfly antenna for gcead analysis. Cereal crops other than wheat are not adequate hosts for the wheat stem sawfly to complete its development even though eggs may be laid in the stems of these grasses. Characterization of resistance to the wheat stem sawfly in. This study investigated the effect of novel and traditional solid wheat hosts on the overwintering mortality and coldhardiness of c. Varieties with pithfilled, or solid, stems provide a measure of resistance by inhibiting larval survival inside the stem. The spike is lax and tapered with white awns and glumes. A solid stem milling wheat that boasts significant yield and disease improvements. Behavioural responses of wheat stem sawflies to wheat volatiles. These results provide a basis for the potential development of resistant wheat varieties and for the development of semiochemicallybased pest management. The solid and semisolid vulgare varieties, s615, s632, s633. K94471 the wheat stem sawfly, cephus cinctus, is a pest that poses dilemmas for northern great plains farmers, and entomologist allard a. Wheat stem sawfly in colorado frequently asked questions. Performance evaluation and recommendations for spring wheat.
Solidstemmed ss wheat varieties have stems filled with. The stem lumen is plugged with frass and sawdust below the notch, forming a chamber. Resistant wheats have a solidstem trait which is unsuitable for sawfly development. Cephidae, is a major pest of wheat triticum aestivum l.
Breeding wheat for resistance to insects request pdf. Resistant varieties are the most desired means of control. Mf3089 wheat stem sawfly ksre bookstore kansas state. Oct 23, 2014 solidstem wheat varieties prove to be effective at keeping wheat stem sawflies at bay, but there are few varieties adapted to colorado, kansas, and nebraska. Red fife wheat is the first variety preserved heritage wheat to celebrate terroir which is the interaction of the genetics of the variety with the growing conditions where the variety is grown. How they damage wheat the wheat stem sawfly is actually a wasp that bores a small hole in the stem of wheat plants to lay eggs. In hungary the bird cherryoat aphid rhopalosiphum padi l. See wheat stem sawfly in wheat, a 2016 webinar on the plant management network by jeff bradshaw. The major mode of resistance is a solid versus hollow stemmed variety.
Please refer to the recent ksre publication mf3089. Please note the 2009 release of the ndaes solidstem hard red spring wheat release named mott which has good resistance to wheat stem sawfly and high yield. Plant breeders continue to use heritage wheat varieties in order to develop new varieties. Current management practices for the wheat stem sawfly, resistant wheat cultivars and various cultural practices, have not been effective in minimizing losses.
Behavioural responses of wheat stem sawflies to wheat. A novel qtl in durum wheat for resistance to the wheat. Wheat stem sawfly also survives on a number of native and domesticated grasses, including species of agropyron, bromus, elymus and elytrigia, in addition to cereal crops. The availability of several adapted solidstemmed wheat cultivars provides a viable management option for parts of the northern high plains. Wheat stem sawfly has adapted to winter wheat, and winter wheat now sustains extensive damage in the northern great plains. Durum wheats are semisolid and are rarely attacked by the sawfly. Resistant to wheat stem sawfly among the few milling wheats with triple resistance to rusts. The wheat stem sawfly is a native grass feeding insect that.
Biology and integrated management of wheat stem sawfly and. Are there varieties that are resistant to wheat stem sawfly. List of canadian heritage wheat varieties wikipedia. Genetic basis of wheat resistance to the wheat stem sawfly by andrea correa varella a dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy in plant science plant genetic montana state university bozeman, montana january 2016. Antixenosis and antibiosis were determined in the settling and fecundity tests respectively. These can lure wheat stem sawflies away from the wheat plants. Only in some years do hordes of the pest bore through wheat stems and drastically cut yields.
Pdf the wheat stem sawfly, cephus cinctus norton hymenoptera. Wheat stem sawfly resistant hard red spring wheat variety descriptions. Farmers planted 658,100 acres of the variety, which accounts for. Pdf biology and integrated management of wheat stem sawfly. It is resistant to stem and leaf rust and shows good tolerance to leaf spotting diseases. There is no chemical control of this pest management hinges on a combination of resistant varieties, cultural controls, and biological control. There is substantial interest in the production of specialty wheats, and both domestic and export endusers are. Cephidae, is a key pest of wheat in the northern great plains of north america. Another method of reducing sawfly populations is to plant an alternate crop that is not susceptible to sawfly infestation. If wheat is to be grown as part of a current rotation, solid stem wheat varieties should be grown as they are considered to be more resistant to sawfly damage. In 2014, based on both cage and field studies, the wheat variety warhorse had 09% stem sawfly survival and appears to be the most.
Request pdf characterization of resistance to the wheat stem sawfly in spring wheat landrace accessions from targeted geographic regions of the world plant landraces have long been recognized. Apr 02, 2017 the wheat stem sawfly, cephus cinctus norton hymenoptera. This finding was further confirmed with two years of texas data. Shallow, fall tillage can result in 90% sawfly mortality. Developing hard white spring wheat, specialty wheat and.
It addresses the insects life cycle, geographic range, host range, how it causes damage, and control options. Wheat va rieties with desirable traits, such as solid stems and fewer sawfly attracting compounds, are manually bred yearround at msu greenhouses. Wheat stem sawfly insects government of saskatchewan. The use of solidstemmed cultivars helps mitigate crop losses and can also affect the survivorship of c. So first the farmer must decide whether to plant a higher yielding. The goal of this research project was to developdisease resistant hard white, specialty, and sawfly resistant spring wheat varieties for north dakota and the surrounding region. Solid stem varieties tolerance to wheat stem sawfly is closely related to the stem solidness trait that has been bred into wheat varieties. The wheat stem sawfly cephus cinctus norton hymenoptera. Wheat stem sawfly resistant variety descriptions ndsu agriculture.
Wheat, is the name given to several plants in the genus triticum including triticum aestivum, triticum compactum, triticum spelta and triticum durum, which are annual or biennial grasses grown primarily for their grain. Wheat stem sawfly for detailed information on its life history, biology and management. The sawfly larva will likely still be in the stem in a chamber just above the crown. In areas where the sawfly is a recent arrival, wheat. Assessment of risk management strategies report highlights the datadriven analysis used over 4,000 observations describing wss infestation, cutting, and parasitism outcomes from 1998 to 2011 across thirtyone locations in montana and southern canadian prairie provinces. Solid stem varieties tolerance to wheat stem sawfly is closely related to. Nebraska wheat stem sawfly program report2014 unlagronomy. Oats and broadleaf crops such as canola, flax and alfalfa are not susceptible to wheat stem sawfly. Trial wheat plots showing stunting caused by rln centre, compared with tolerant varieties each side. A novel qtl in durum wheat for resistance to the wheat stem. Wheat species possess an erect smooth stem with linear leaves that grow in two rows on either side of the stem with larger flag leaves at the top of the stem. Farmers planted 658,100 acres of the variety, which accounts for 28. Usually one egg survives, and the larva tunnel to the base of the wheat stem. While the insects can reduce seed development by 5% to 15% by causing shriveled and shrunken seeds, the biggest losses are attributed to plant lodging, michaud says.
Pdf identification of novel qtl for sawfly resistance in. Beauzay, ndsu as the plant matures, and usually prior to harvest, the larva moves down to the base of the stem and chews a notch around the inside of the stem. Golden ball, a durum wheat, retains its solid characteristic under all conditions thus far investigated. Yellowstone is the most common winter wheat variety for 2015. Keywords spiroplasma, scanning electron microscopy, wheat stem sawfly, metagenomics, microbial genomics, pangenomics, phylogenomics howtocitethisarticleyeoman cj, brutscher lm, esen oc, ibaoglu f, fowler c, eren am, wanner k, weaver dk. Performance evaluation and recommendations for spring wheat 2016. Warhorse significantly reduce the survival of the wheat stem sawfly compared to many but not all hollowstem varieties. Solid stem wheat varieties are resistant to larval damage. Wheat stem sawfly numbers up in the panhandle cropwatch. Kernels are red, ovate with a medium crease and brush.
The pith impedes larval growth and migration, greatly reducing stem cutting, insect survival, and ultimately population growth wal lace and mcneal, 1966. In 2014, based on both cage and field studies, the wheat variety warhorse had 09% stem sawfly survival and appears to be the most resistant of the wheat varieties we have tested thus far. It is a solidstemmed variety, resistant to the wheat stem sawfly. Us wheat varieties are examined for differential disease resistance between public and private varieties, an issue for critics of plant intellectual property.
Cosse and his colleagues hope to help make their decisions a bit easier one day. Choteau has good grain protein and acceptable milling and baking quality. An artificial neural network model to predict wheat stem. Integrating spring wheat sowing density with variety. Choteau is resistant to the prevalent race of stem rust in montana. Michaud says farmers may wish to plant attractive host plants such as oats or rye along wheat fields. Lines tested included russian wheat aphid diuraphis noxia, greenbug schizaphis graminum, hessian fly mayetiola destructor and orange wheat blossom midge sitodiplosis mosellana resistant varieties. Red fife was the first named variety of wheat developed in canada.
Wheat stem sawfly adult female ovipositing into stem p. The wheat stem sawfly, cephus cinctus norton hymenoptera. Genou is the top winter wheat variety planted in montana for the fifth year in a row. These results provide a basis for the potential development of resistant wheat varieties and for the development of.
There are a few varieties resistant to hessian fly and greenbug, but many of these are no lon ger resistant to wheat diseases. Resistance is not an unalterable factor, but is influenced by environment. It is a mediumtall, awned wheat that matures approximately 2 days later than reeder and choteau. Brawl cl plus is the fourth most common winter wheat variety planted on 7.
Spring wheat breeding and genetics montana state university. Priority breeding objectives will remain resistance to w heat stem sawfly, russian wheat aphid, wheat streak mosaic virus, and stem rust, winter hardiness, and end use quality. If the stem is packed with a sawdustlike material, the stem was infested with a wheat stem sawfly larva. Cdc adamant vb is the first cwrs wheat that provides resistance to both wheat stem sawfly and orange blossom wheat midge. Wheat stems which are solid or partially solid are more resistant than hollow stems. The presence of wheat stem sawfly can be verified by splitting the suspected stem from top to bottom and examining the interior of the stem. The wheat stem sawfly, cephus cinctus norton hyme noptera.
Genetic basis of wheat resistance to the wheat stem sawfly by. Resistance to bird cherryoat aphid rhopalosiphum padi l. The development of western wheat stem sawfly cephus. Wheat stem sawflys impact on the northern usda ars. The wheat stem sawfly wss cephus cinctus norton is a major yieldreducing pest of wheat triticum aestivum l. The consistency of the pithy tissue is variable depending on environment. Jun 06, 2018 see wheat stem sawfly in wheat, a 2016 webinar on the plant management network by jeff bradshaw. Identification of novel qtl for sawfly resistance in wheat. Sawflyresistant, solidstem wheat varieties have been available since rescue was introduced in the 1940s, but these varieties usually produce lower yields than hollowstem varieties, and their solidness is very dependent upon. Kelby is susceptible to damage by the wheat stem sawfly. Northern seed has a solid line up of sawfly resistant varieties while travelling around the country this summer, many of us have noticed that the wheat stem sawfly.
Red fife wheat is the first variety preserved heritage wheat to celebrate terroir which is the interaction of the genetics. Roots affected by rln, showing reduced branching and darkened sections of the main r ots. Farmers are growing heritage wheat varieties as part of the 100 mile diet, eat local and slow food movements. Province of manitoba agriculture wheat stem sawfly. However, the preferred pest management strategy for control of wheat stem sawfly is the use of resistant solidstemmed wheat varieties kemp 1934, berzonsky et al. For instance, durum wheat is typically more resistant to wheat stem sawfly damage than is spring wheat. There is substantial interest in the production of specialty wheats, and both domestic and export endusers are requesting the development of highprotein specialty. Jun 01, 2019 the wheat stem sawfly wss cephus cinctus norton is a major yieldreducing pest of wheat triticum aestivum l. Wheat stem sawfly for detailed information on its life history, biology. Genomeresolved insights into a novel spiroplasma symbiont of. By planting about two seeder passes of a trap crop, which can also be a resistant solidstem wheat variety, you can focus the sawflies into one area. Within this geographical region, the areas subjected to greatest attack are southern alberta and saskatchewan, southwestern manitoba, eastern and northern montana, north dakota, northern south dakota, and. Csu is releasing two moderately resistant varieties with similar yield potential to other colorado varieties. Cultural practices a number of practices reduce losses caused by this insect.
The effects of the major factors on populations of the wheat stem sawfly, cephus cinctus norton, were studied in the field at lethbridge, alberta between 1970 and 1977. The top four varieties listed below account for almost half of the total winter wheat planted in montana for 2015. The top four varieties listed below account for over fiftynine percent of the total winter wheat planted in montana for 2011. Yellowstone is a hard red winter wheat developed by. Fecundity of the females, which contain an average of 32. Root and crown disease of wheat and barely in northern nsw. Mott is suscpteible to moderately susceptible to prevalent races of leaf rust.
Wheat stem sawfly resistant wheat variety descriptions. Genomeresolved insights into a novel spiroplasma symbiont. This insect primarily affects wheat in the central and western areas of the state. Warhorse is resistant to both stem and stripe rust. Performance evaluation and recommendations for spring. In a set of approximately durum wheat lines, a single line stood out as being extremely susceptible. The wheat stem sawfly can use several hollow stem wild grasses as hosts, including quackgrass, smooth brome and wheatgrasses.
Crosses have been made between this line and the normal moderately resistant durum wheat. Yellowstone is a hard red winter wheat developed by the montana agricultural. Northern seed has a solid line up of sawfly resistant varieties while travelling around the country this summer, many of us have noticed that the wheat stem sawfly numbers seem to be higher than normal this year. The available resistant varieties, none of which are adapted to colorado, have a trait called solid stem. Cephidae wss has been a serious pest of wheat triticum aestivum l. Its a significant step up in yield from its predecessor lillian, with the same early maturity.
The goal of this research project was to developdisease resistant hard white, specialty, and sawflyresistant spring wheat varieties for north dakota and the surrounding region. Cultural management options for wheat stem sawfly in cropwatch. Solid stem varieties of wheat have been shown to be effective in reducing damage caused by the wheat stem sawfly. Development of yield competitive, winter hardy, sawfly resistant hrww and hwww cultivars is priority. In addition, there are new biotypes of russian wheat aphid in western kansas virulent to all com mercial wheat varieties. Economic impacts of the wheat stem sawfly and an assessment of. Grain protein of kelby is good and the milling and baking quality is acceptable.
Thus, complementing the use of resistant cultivars with additional. One trait important to wheat growers is resistance to the wheat stem sawfly. Influence of resistant and susceptible cultivar blends of hard red spring wheat on wheat stem sawfly hymenoptera. Cdc adamant vb will be a solid choice for growers looking for comprehensive resistance to both wheat stem sawfly and wheat midge. It is resistant to moderately resistant to prevalent races of stem rust. The wheat stem sawfly wss is an opportunistic, evolutionary specialist that has perennially. Host plant resistance is found in wheat accessions that have stems fi lled with pith, referred to as solid stems kemp, 1934. Host plant resistance in the form of solidstemmed wheat cultivars is the main control strategy for c. More than any other practice, the use of resistant varieties has reduced sawfly damage. Analysis using disease resistance rankings of wheat varieties from kansas and texas indicate that private varieties are as or more resistant. The efficacy of a plants resistance is based on its ability to develop pith in the culm of the stem, which is. Fortuna is susceptible to septoria and black chaff fungus. Cephidae, is historically one of the most important economic insect pests in the northern great plains of north america. Wheat diseases and pests, description, uses, propagation.492 1468 81 274 706 968 406 1577 84 486 1521 671 606 629 911 1569 631 1286 1098 14 1565 818 1395 1021 1115 750 939 787 639 90 1150 624 255 65 863